The Commission was established in accordance with section 153 (J) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
The Commission shall have power to-
1. Undertake the enumeration of the population of Nigeria periodically, through censuses, sample surveys or otherwise;
2. Establish and maintain a machinery for continuous and universal registration of births and deaths, throughout the Federation;
3. Prepare and maintain a national framework, including locality list and house numbering, for the delineation exercise for census and sample surveys in each local government area in Nigeria;
4. Collect, collate and publish data on migration statistics;
5. Research and monitor the national population policy and set up a national population information data bank;
6. Arrange for the appointment and training of enumerators and all other categories of staff of the Commission;
7. Provide information and data on population for purposes of facilitating national planning and economic development;
8. Advise the President on population matters;
9. Disseminate information and educate the general public about the functions of the Commission under the Act;
10. Do all such things as may be considered by the Commission to be necessary, desirable, expedient, supplementary or incidental to the performance of the functions or the exercise of the powers conferred on the Commission under Act.