The Commission was established in accordance with section 153 (J) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The Commission shall have the power to -
- Undertake the enumeration of the population of Nigeria periodically, through censuses, sample surveys or otherwise;
- Establish and maintain machinery for continuous and universal registration of births and deaths, throughout the Federation;
- Advise the President on population matters;
- Publish and provide information and data on population for the purpose of facilitating economic and development planning; and
- Appoint and train or arrange for the appointment and training of enumerators or the staff of the Commission.
Other functions of the Commission according to the NPC Act are;
- Prepare and maintain a national framework, including locality list and house numbering, for the delineation exercise for census and sample surveys in each local government area in Nigeria;
- Collect, collate and publish data on migration statistics;
- Research and monitor the national population policy and set up a national population information data bank;
- Disseminate information and educate the general public about the functions of the Commission under the Act;
Do all such things as may be considered by the Commission to be necessary, desirable, expedient, supplementary or incidental to the performance of the functions or the exercise of the powers conferred on the Commission under the Act. Additional Responsibility to the Commission is to;
- Coordinate all activities of the population sector.